New Zealand’s Three-Water Infrastructure Stocktake

The problem

New Zealand’s local councils did not have an updated inventory of their stormwater infrastructure. This impeded their ability to manage the country’s infrastructure for potable, waste, and stormwater (three-waters infrastructure) and to prevent flooding and freshwater pollution.

How we helped

Castalia created a survey that was sent to all 78 councils across the country to collect data for the infrastructure stocktake. Using this information, Castalia wrote an issues paper that described the complexity of stormwater across the country. The paper analyzed affordability challenges and discussed the impact of water standards on affordability across the three-waters sector.


Local councils had up an updated inventory of their three-waters infrastructure. The issues paper we wrote was published by Local Government New Zealand and increased public knowledge on New Zealand’s stormwater assets.

Our team

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