Water Sector Regulation Notes

The problem

Many water utilities are inefficient and unresponsive to customer demands, providing poor services at high cost. Governments struggle to make these utilities perform well. Regulation can be a useful tool to improve utility performance, but there was confusion about how to regulate effectively, and how regulation interacts with related tools, including governance and public-private partnerships.

How we helped

Castalia wrote six Explanatory Notes, each covering a key topic in water regulation. Together these notes: defined economic and other types of regulation; provided principles to guide development of effective regulatory frameworks; and clarified how best to design regulation for publicly-owned utilities, and for various types of public-private partnerships for water utilities.


The World Bank published the “Explanatory Notes on Key Topics in the Regulation of Water and Sanitation Services” in 2006. This paper has been downloaded over 1300 times from the World Bank website and cited in 57 publications.

The client

World Bank

Our team

Alex Sundakov

Alex Sundakov

Executive Director
David Ehrhardt

David Ehrhardt

Chief Executive

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How can we help you?

How can we help you?